User management

The Firebase Admin SDK for PHP provides an API for managing your Firebase users with elevated privileges. The admin user management API gives you the ability to programmatically retrieve, create, update, and delete users without requiring a user’s existing credentials and without worrying about client-side rate limiting.

User Records

UserRecord s returned by methods from Kreait\Firebase\Contract\Auth class have the following signature:

    "uid": "jEazVdPDhqec0tnEOG7vM5wbDyU2",
    "email": "",
    "emailVerified": true,
    "displayName": null,
    "photoUrl": null,
    "phoneNumber": null,
    "disabled": false,
    "metadata": {
        "createdAt": "2018-02-14T15:41:32+00:00",
        "lastLoginAt": "2018-02-14T15:41:32+00:00",
        "passwordUpdatedAt": "2018-02-14T15:42:19+00:00",
        "lastRefreshAt": "2018-02-14T15:42:19+00:00"
    "providerData": [
            "uid": "",
            "displayName": null,
            "screenName": null,
            "email": "",
            "photoUrl": null,
            "providerId": "password",
            "phoneNumber": null
    "passwordHash": "UkVEQUNURUQ=",
    "customClaims": null,
    "tokensValidAfterTime": "2018-02-14T15:41:32+00:00"

List users

To enhance performance and prevent memory issues when retrieving a huge amount of users, this methods returns a Generator.

$users = $auth->listUsers($defaultMaxResults = 1000, $defaultBatchSize = 1000);

foreach ($users as $user) {
    /** @var \Kreait\Firebase\Auth\UserRecord $user */
    // ...
// or
array_map(function (\Kreait\Firebase\Auth\UserRecord $user) {
    // ...
}, iterator_to_array($users));

Query users

Listing all users with listUser() is fast an memory-efficient if you want to process a large number of users. However, if you prefer paginating over subsets of users with more parameters, you can use the queryUsers() method.

User queries can be created in two ways: by building a UserQuery object or by passing an array.

The following two snippets show all possible query modifiers with both ways:

use Kreait\Firebase\Auth\UserQuery;

# Building a user query object
$userQuery = UserQuery::all()
    // ->inAscendingOrder() # this is the default
    ->withLimit(499); # The maximum supported limit is 500

# Using an array
$userQuery = [
    'sortBy' => UserQuery::FIELD_USER_EMAIL,
    'order' => UserQuery::ORDER_DESC,
    // 'order' => UserQuery::ORDER_DESC # this is the default
    'offset' => 1,
    'limit' => 499, # The maximum supported limit is 500

It is possible to sort by the following fields:



  • UserQuery::FIELD_NAME


  • UserQuery::FIELD_USER_ID

$users = $auth->queryUsers($userQuery);

You can also filter by email, phone number or uid:

use Kreait\Firebase\Auth\UserQuery;

$userQuery = UserQuery::all()->withFilter(UserQuery::FILTER_EMAIL, '<email>');
$userQuery = UserQuery::all()->withFilter(UserQuery::FILTER_PHONE_NUMBER, '<phone number>');
$userQuery = UserQuery::all()->withFilter(UserQuery::FILTER_UID, '<uid>');

$userQuery = ['filter' => [UserQuery::FILTER_EMAIL => '<email>'];
$userQuery = ['filter' => [UserQuery::FILTER_PHONE_NUMBER => '<email>'];
$userQuery = ['filter' => [UserQuery::FILTER_UID => '<email>'];

A user query will always return an array of UserRecord s. If none could be found, the array will be empty.


Filters don’t support partial matches, and only one filter can be applied at the same time. If you specify multiple filters, only the last one will be submitted.

Get information about a specific user

try {
    $user = $auth->getUser('some-uid');
    $user = $auth->getUserByEmail('');
    $user = $auth->getUserByPhoneNumber('+49-123-456789');
} catch (\Kreait\Firebase\Exception\Auth\UserNotFound $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();

Get information about multiple users

You can retrieve multiple user records by using $auth->getUsers(). When a user doesn’t exist, no exception is thrown, but its entry in the result set is null:

$users = $auth->getUsers(['some-uid', 'another-uid', 'non-existing-uid']);


    'some-uid' => <UserRecord>,
    'another-uid' => <UserRecord>,
    'non-existing-uid' => null

Create a user

The Admin SDK provides a method that allows you to create a new Firebase Authentication user. This method accepts an object containing the profile information to include in the newly created user account:

$userProperties = [
    'email' => '',
    'emailVerified' => false,
    'phoneNumber' => '+15555550100',
    'password' => 'secretPassword',
    'displayName' => 'John Doe',
    'photoUrl' => '',
    'disabled' => false,

$createdUser = $auth->createUser($userProperties);

// This is equivalent to:

$request = \Kreait\Auth\Request\CreateUser::new()
    ->withDisplayName('John Doe')

$createdUser = $auth->createUser($request);

By default, Firebase Authentication will generate a random uid for the new user. If you instead want to specify your own uid for the new user, you can include in the properties passed to the user creation method:

$properties = [
    'uid' => 'some-uid',
    // other properties

$request = \Kreait\Auth\Request\CreateUser::new()
    // with other properties

Any combination of the following properties can be provided:






The uid to assign to the newly created user. Must be a string between 1 and 128 characters long, inclusive. If not provided, a random uid will be automatically generated.



The user’s primary email. Must be a valid email address.



Whether or not the user’s primary email is verified. If not provided, the default is false.



The user’s primary phone number. Must be a valid E.164 spec compliant phone number.



The user’s raw, unhashed password. Must be at least six characters long.



The users’ display name.



The user’s photo URL.



Whether or not the user is disabled. true for disabled; false for enabled. If not provided, the default is false.


All of the above properties are optional. If a certain property is not specified, the value for that property will be empty unless a default is mentioned in the above table.


If you provide none of the properties, an anonymous user will be created.

Update a user

Updating a user works exactly as creating a new user, except that the uid property is required:

$uid = 'some-uid';
$properties = [
    'displayName' => 'New display name'

$updatedUser = $auth->updateUser($uid, $properties);

$request = \Kreait\Auth\Request\UpdateUser::new()
    ->withDisplayName('New display name');

$updatedUser = $auth->updateUser($uid, $request);

In addition to the properties of a create request, the following properties can be provided:






Whether or not to delete the user’s email.



Whether or not to delete the user’s photo.



Whether or not to delete the user’s display name.



Whether or not to delete the user’s phone number.



One or more identity providers to delete.



A list of custom attributes which will be available in a User’s ID token.


When deleting the email from an existing user, the password authentication provider will be disabled (the user can’t log in with an email and password combination anymore). After adding a new email to the same user, the previously set password might be restored. If you just want to change a user’s email, consider updating the email field directly.

Change a user’s password

$uid = 'some-uid';

$updatedUser = $auth->changeUserPassword($uid, 'new password');

Change a user’s email

$uid = 'some-uid';

$updatedUser = $auth->changeUserEmail($uid, '');

Disable a user

$uid = 'some-uid';

$updatedUser = $auth->disableUser($uid);

Enable a user

$uid = 'some-uid';

$updatedUser = $auth->enableUser($uid);

Custom user claims


Learn more about custom attributes/claims in the official documentation: Control Access with Custom Claims and Security Rules

// The new custom claims will propagate to the user's ID token the
// next time a new one is issued.
$auth->setCustomUserClaims($uid, ['admin' => true, 'key1' => 'value1']);

// Retrieve a user's current custom claims
$claims = $auth->getUser($uid)->customClaims;

// Remove a user's custom claims
$auth->setCustomUserClaims($uid, null);

The custom claims object should not contain any OIDC reserved key names or Firebase reserved names. Custom claims payload must not exceed 1000 bytes.

Delete a user

The Firebase Admin SDK allows deleting users by their uid:

$uid = 'some-uid';

try {
catch (\Kreait\Firebase\Exception\Auth\UserNotFound $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
} catch (\Kreait\Firebase\Exception\AuthException $e) {
    echo 'Deleting

This method returns nothing when the deletion completes successfully. If the provided uid does not correspond to an existing user or the user cannot be deleted for any other reason, the delete user method throws an error.

Delete multiple users

The Firebase Admin SDK can also delete multiple (up to 1000) users at once:

$uid = ['uid-1', 'uid-2', 'uid-3'];
$forceDeleteEnabledUsers = true; // default: false

$result = $auth->deleteUsers($uids, $forceDeleteEnabledUsers);

By default, only disabled users will be deleted. If you want to also delete enabled users, use true as the second argument.

This method always returns an instance of Kreait\Firebase\Auth\DeleteUsersResult:

$successCount = $result->successCount();
$failureCount = $result->failureCount();
$errors = $result->rawErrors();


Using this method to delete multiple users at once will not trigger onDelete() event handlers for Cloud Functions for Firebase. This is because batch deletes do not trigger a user deletion event on each user. Delete users one at a time if you want user deletion events to fire for each deleted user.

Duplicate/Unregistered email addresses

Some Firebase Authentication methods that take email addresses as parameters throw specific errors if the email address is unregistered when it must be registered (for example, when signing in with an email address and password), or registered when it must be unused (for example, when changing a user’s email address).

If you try to create a new user, but the given email address has already been used before, the Firebase API returns an EMAIL_EXISTS error. On the other hand, if you try to sign in a user with an email address that hasn’t been registered, the API returns an EMAIL_NOT_FOUND error.

You can handle both cases with the SDK:

try {
    $user = $auth->createUser([
        'email' => $email,
} catch (\Kreait\Firebase\Exception\Auth\EmailExists $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage(); // "The email address is already in use by another account"

try {
    $signInResult = $auth->signInWithEmailAndPassword($email, $password);
} catch (\Kreait\Firebase\Exception\Auth\EmailNotFound $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage(); // "There is no user record corresponding to this identifier. The user may have been deleted."


Checking for existing/non-existing email addresses can be helpful for suggesting specific remedies to users, but it can also be abused by malicious actors to discover the email addresses registered by your users.

To mitigate this risk, Firebase recommends you enable email enumeration protection for your project using the Google Cloud gcloud tool. Note that enabling this feature changes Firebase Authentication’s error reporting behavior: be sure your app doesn’t rely on the more specific errors.

Using Email Action Codes

The Firebase Admin SDK provides the ability to send users emails containing links they can use for password resets, email address verification, and email-based sign-in. These emails are sent by Google and have limited customizability.

If you want to instead use your own email templates and your own email delivery service, you can use the Firebase Admin SDK to programmatically generate the action links for the above flows, which you can include in emails to your users.

Action Code Settings


Action Code Settings are optional.

Action Code Settings allow you to pass additional state via a continue URL which is accessible after the user clicks the email link. This also provides the user the ability to go back to the app after the action is completed. In addition, you can specify whether to handle the email action link directly from a mobile application when it is installed or from a browser.

For links that are meant to be opened via a mobile app, you’ll need to enable Firebase Dynamic Links and perform some tasks to detect these links from your mobile app. Refer to the instructions on how to configure Firebase Dynamic Links for email actions.






Sets the continue URL



Alias for continueUrl



Whether the email action link will be opened in a mobile app or a web link first.
The default is false. When set to true, the action code link will be be sent
as a Universal Link or Android App Link and will be opened by the app if
installed. In the false case, the code will be sent to the web widget first
and then on continue will redirect to the app if installed.



Sets the Android package name. This will try to open the link in an android app
if it is installed.



Whether to install the Android app if the device supports it and the app is not
already installed. If this field is provided without a androidPackageName,
an error is thrown explaining that the packageName must be provided in
conjunction with this field.



If specified, and an older version of the app is installed,
the user is taken to the Play Store to upgrade the app.
The Android app needs to be registered in the Console.



Sets the iOS bundle ID. This will try to open the link in an iOS app if it is
installed. The iOS app needs to be registered in the Console.


$actionCodeSettings = [
    'continueUrl' => '',
    'handleCodeInApp' => true,
    'dynamicLinkDomain' => '',
    'androidPackageName' => '',
    'androidMinimumVersion' => '12',
    'androidInstallApp' => true,
    'iOSBundleId' => 'com.example.ios',

Email verification

To generate an email verification link, provide the existing user’s unverified email and optional Action Code Settings. The email used must belong to an existing user. Depending on the method you use, an email will be sent to the user, or you will get an email action link that you can use in a custom email.

$link = $auth->getEmailVerificationLink($email);
$link = $auth->getEmailVerificationLink($email, $actionCodeSettings);
$link = $auth->getEmailVerificationLink($email, $actionCodeSettings, $locale);

$auth->sendEmailVerificationLink($email, $actionCodeSettings);
$auth->sendEmailVerificationLink($email, null, $locale);
$auth->sendEmailVerificationLink($email, $actionCodeSettings, $locale);

Password reset

To generate a password reset link, provide the existing user’s email and optional Action Code Settings. The email used must belong to an existing user. Depending on the method you use, an email will be sent to the user, or you will get an email action link that you can use in a custom email.

$link = $auth->getPasswordResetLink($email);
$link = $auth->getPasswordResetLink($email, $actionCodeSettings);
$link = $auth->getPasswordResetLink($email, $actionCodeSettings, $locale);

$auth->sendPasswordResetLink($email, $actionCodeSettings);
$auth->sendPasswordResetLink($email, null, $locale);
$auth->sendPasswordResetLink($email, $actionCodeSettings, $locale);

Confirm a password reset


Out of the box, Firebase handles the confirmation of password reset requests. You can use your own server to handle account management emails by following the instructions on Customize account management emails and SMS messages

$oobCode = '...'; // Extract the OOB code from the request url (not scope of the SDK (yet :)))
$newPassword = '...';
$invalidatePreviousSessions = true; // default, will revoke current user refresh tokens

try {
    $auth->confirmPasswordReset($oobCode, $newPassword, $invalidatePreviousSessions);
} catch (\Kreait\Firebase\Exception\Auth\ExpiredOobCode $e) {
    // Handle the case of an expired reset code
} catch (\Kreait\Firebase\Exception\Auth\InvalidOobCode $e) {
    // Handle the case of an invalid reset code
} catch (\Kreait\Firebase\Exception\AuthException $e) {
    // Another error has occurred